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[Sraithinclc, Jolm Wash- 
ington Pearce] 
Ornitho logs'* o^ Horth 

Cexolina... 1897 



6^L 

Ornithology of 



North Carolina. 



A List of the Birds of Nortli Carolina, 
with Notes of Each Species. 



ISSUED BY 

THE NORTH CAROLINA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

RALEIGH, N. C. 



Bulletin No. 144 




October 30, 1897 



(I '■• * 



n:. 



''^"S' «l„,,tt«.^ 




. oUcations will be sent to any address In North Carolina upon application. 



NORTH CAROLINA COLLEGE OF AGRICDLTDRE AND MECHANIC ARTS, 

RALEIGH, N. C. 

THK NORTH CAROLINA 

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

J. C. Iv. Harris, Presidetit, Raleigh. 



Iv. ,C. Edwards Oxford. 

J. W. Harden, Jr Kaleigh. 

H. G Connor Wilson. 

Matt Moore Warsaw. 

J. Z. Waller Burlington. 

H. E. BoNiTz Wilmington. 

B. F. Dixon King's Mountain. 



J. J. Britt Bakersville. 

Alex. Q HolL-^day Raleigh. 

J. R. Chamberlain Raleigh. 

S L. Crowder Halifax. 



STATION COUNCIL. 

Alex. Q. Holladay, LL. D., President of the College. 

W. A. Withers, A. M Professor of Cliemistry. 

F. E. Emery, M. S Professor of Agriculture. 

W. F. Massey, C. E Professor of Horticulture. 

EXPERIMENT STATION STAFF. 

W. A. Withers., A. M, Acting Director. 

W. A. Withers, A. M State Chemist. 

F. E. Emery, M. S Agriculturist. 

W. F. Massey, C. E Horticulturist. 

C. B. Williams, M. S Assistant Chemist. 

H. K. Miller, M. S Assistant Chemist. 

C. D. Harris, B. S Assistant Chemist. 

A. W. Blair, A. M Assistant Chemist. 

J. D. Hufham, Jr., A. B Assistant Chemist. 

Alex. Rhodes Assistant Horticulturist. 

C. W. Hyams A.ssistant Horticulturist. 

J. M. Johnson, M. S Assistant Agriculturist. 

F. E. HegE Poultry Manager. 

B. 8. Skinner Superintendent of Farm. 

J. M. Fix Secretary. 

H. E. King Chief Clerk. 

F. G. KELLY Clerk. 

S.Bj Moore Clerk. 

Miss M. S. Birdsong Stenographer. 



The Director's office is in the main building of the College. Telephone No. 
135 C. The street cars pass within one hundred yards of the College building. 

The Station Is glad to receive any inquiries on agricultural subjects Address 
nil coynmunications to the Agricultural Experiment Station, and not to i/idi^'iduals. 
They will be referred to the members of the Station staff most competent to 
answer them. 




The accompanying bulletin is the first of its kind issued by this 
Experiment Station. It is not, however, the first publication of its 
kind, as the author shows in his preface. It is believed, to be the 
most complete list of the Birds of the State that has been published. 

The list is the result of many hours of labor taken from his regu- 
lar work or time of recreation, and is a donation by the author to 
the Experiment Station. While the work seems to have been done 
with care, yet it is possible that some species have been omitted. 
The Experiment Station or the author will be grateful for the men- 
tion of any omissions. 

It is hoped that this bulletin will cause an additional interest 
to be awakened in birds, about which far too little is known. 

W. A. Withers, 
Publication approved : Acting Director. 

Alex. Q. Holladay, 

President. 



Copyright, 1897, 
By the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station. 



PREFACE 



In contemplation of this list I have spared no pains in gathering 
material from all available sources, which I have boiled down and 
condensed, and am glad to present it in as coutplete form as is pos- 
sible at this date. 

Historical. — Catesby's work, in 1670, was the first to appear on 
the birds of this State, but this work included a great deal more 
territory than North Carolina, and did not embrace one-half of the 
birds now known to occur within our borders. Then followed the 
publication of several minor papers, at irregular intervals, devoted 
principally to the ornithology of the various sections, when, in 1887, 
Prof. G. F. Atkinson, of the University of North Carolina, pub- 
lished a list of all the birds then known to him to occur within the 
bounds of the State. Incomplete though this list was, it has served 
a good purpose — rthat of a stimulus ; and since that time much 
work has been done by a few zealous workers. Many new species 
have been added, and new and more complete notes taken on nearly 
all the species recorded by him ; their general distribution and 
nesting habits have been more fully studied and carefully observed ; 
the result of which is given forth in this list. It is an entirely new 
list, so far as the annotations are concerned, in nearly every respect. 

Geographical and Physical Characteristics of the 
State. — North Carolina is peculiarly situated, geographically, and 
divided, physically ; so that it presents a variety of climate, and 
consequently a varied bird-life, which is exceedingly interesting. 
Midway, as it were, between the North and South, and reaching 
from the Atlantic ocean westward five hundred miles to the heights 
of the Alleghanies, we are visited by nearly all the migrants of 
eastern North America. Physically, it is divided into three dis- 
tinct regions, viz., the eastern or tide-water, which can roughly be 
said to include all the land east of a line which indicates an alti- 
tude of one hundred feet above the sea-level ; the middle or pied- 
mont, which is bounded by the above-described line on the east, 
and a similar one on the west, indicating the altitude of five hun- 
dred feet ; and the western or mountain section, which includes all 
the territory west of the piedmont section, embracing all the moun- 
tains of the State to the eastern boundary of Tennessee. From the 
sea-level in the east the altitude gradually increases till a height of 
more than six thousand feet is reached in the west. These varia- 



198 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

tions in climate and physical characteristics give us, in a great de- 
gree, our varied bird-life. In the higher mountains ours somewhat 
resemble the Canadian avian jaiina^ inasmuch as many birds are 
found breeding there which usually make a more Northern place 
their summer home. In the east the climate is mild and equable, 
being tempered by the Gulf Stream, and many birds winter there, 
and occasionally that section lias stragglers which it would not 
were it not for its peculiar situation and environment. 

Scope of the Work. — Three hundred and three species are 
listed, which includes all that are known to occur within the bor- 
ders of the State at" the present time. Two species are recorded 
upon evidence that they once occurred and they may be found 
again. An Appendix of twenty-two species is added, of species 
which ought to occur, and we may expect to take them if we are 
careful. 

Source of Material. — During the past ten years I have de- 
voted much time to the study of the ornithology of our State, and 
the result of all my study and observations is embodied in and con- 
stitutes the foundation of this work. To the following gentlemen 
I am also greatly indebted, for without their assistance this list 
could never have been as complete as I am now able to make it : 

Mr. H. H. Brimley, Curator State Museum, Raleigh, N. C, for 
notes on the ducks and a few water-birds found on our sounds in 
winter, and for notes on the specimens received at the Museum. 

Mr. C. S. Brimley, Raleigh, N. C, for a list of the birds of the 
vicinity of Raleigh, and all the notes he has collected through sev- 
eral years collecting and corresponding in various portions of the 
State. 

Mr. John S. Cairns, a short time before his untimely death, sent 
me a complete list of the birds of Buncombe County, which has 
been of much service to me. In the death of this ardent lover of 
nature we have lost one of our brightest stars, and, I fear, his place 
will long remain vacant. His home was in Weaverville, among 
the giants of nature. 

Mr. Joe H. Armfield, Greensboro, N. C, sent me a list of all the 
birds which had come under his observation through several years 
collecting, which contained some interesting and valuable notes on 
the nidification habits of some of the rarer species. 

Mr. T. Gilbert Pearson, Curator Guilford College Museum, Guil- 
ford College, N. C, has rendered assistance by sending a list of all 
the birds he has identified during his residence in North Carolina. 
His former home was in Florida. 

Mr. R. P. Smithwick sent me a list of the birds of Bertie County, 
with notes on each species, which* has proven of service. 

Mr. C. J. Maynard, Newtonville, Mass., furnished some valuable 
notes on a few species of our coast birds, observed by himself in 
1876. 



PREFACE. 



199 



Mr. H. Gould Welborne, Lexington, N. C, sent some interesting 
notes on the species he has observed in his immediate section. 

I have had for reference the following works : " A Preliminary 
Catalogne of the Birds of North Carolina, With Notes on Some of 
the Species," by Prof. G. F. Atkinson, 1887 ; and "The Birds and 
Reptiles of Fort Macon, N. C," by Dr. Elliott Cones, 187 1. 

J. W. P. SMITHWICK, M. D. 

Auro?-a, N. C, October 26^ iSgy. 




WESTERN SECTION 



MIDDLE SECTION, 



EASTERN SECTION 




PREFACE. 

199 



Mr. H. Gould Welborne, Lexino-ton N r c^«f . 
notes o„ the species >.e „as ^..r^^l^i^i^^^^^^l^^^f'-^ 

the Species," by Prof. G. F. Atkr„so„ " 88^ a^,d °The° R^r' °i 
Repfles of Fort Macon, N. C," by Dn F:ilLtt CouerTs;! "" 

J- W. P. SMITHWICK M D 
Aurora, N. C, October 26, iSgy. ' ' ' 



ANNOTATED LIST. 



J. W. p. SMITHWICK, M. D., AURORA, N. C. 



Family P0DICIPID;E. Grebes. 

1. HolbcELL's Grebe. Colymbus holbcellii. (Reinh.) 
Common on the coast in winter. Has been exhibited in the 

meat at the Newbern Fair, and often caught in the fish-nets on the 
Neuse river. One record for the middle section, that of Atkinson. 

2. Horned Grebe. Colymbus auritus. (lyinn.) 

Common winter visitor on the coast and adjacent waters ; rare 
visitor in the mountains, winters of 1886-87. 

3. Pied-billed Grebe. Podilymbus -pobicefs. (Linn.) 
Frequent winter visitor in the east ; rare transient in the middle 

and western sections. 

Family URINATORIDyE, Loons. 

4. Loon. Urinntor iinber. (Gunn.) 

Common in the east during the winter along the water courses ; 
probably a rare winter visitor at Raleigh one taken winter of 1887, 
several winter of 1897 ; transient in the mountains. 

5. Red-throated Loon. Urinator lumme. (Gunn.) 
Common in winter on the waters of the eastern section, often 

caught in the fish nets on the Neuse river. 

Family ALCID^. Auks. Murres and Puffins. 

6. Brunnich's Murre. Uria lomvia. (Linn.) 

One specimen was procured in Newbern on December 27, 1896, 
by T. Gilbert Pearson. This specimen was identified by Prof. 
Ridgway, and is now in the Guilford College Museum. 

7. Razor-billed auk. Alca torda. (Linn.) 

The head, wing and foot of one of this species were sent to the 
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, for identification, 
by Lieut. Foley, U. S. N. It was taken at Lookout Cove, Feb- 
ruary, 1890. Others were seen. 

Family LARID/E. Gulls and Terns. 

8. American Herring Gull. Lams argentatus sinttksouianus. 
(Cones.) 

Very abundant resident along the coast in winter, staying from 
from September till April. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 201 

9. Ring-billed Gull. Lams deJawarensis. (Ord.) 

Spring and fall migrant along the coast, may be a winter resi- 
dent ; accidental in the mountains, a pair taken by Cairns in No- 
vember, 1889, near Asheville. 

10. Laughing Gull. Lams atricilla. (Linn.) 

Common on the coast. Given by Prof. x\tkinson as breeding, 
and consequently a summer resident, but Dr. Coues says he never 
observed it breeding at Fort Macon, though they stay away only a 
short time during the summer, and that they must breed near by. 

11. Bonaparte's Gull. Lams ■philadclfhia. (Ord.) 
Extremely abundant migrants on the coast ; accidental in the 

middle section one taken by S. B. Moore, Franklin County, De- 
cember, 1890. 

12. Royal Tern. Sterna maxima. (Bodd.) 

A common summer visitor on the coast, probably breeding, as 
Dr. Coues saw young ones still receiving attention from their pa- 
rents at Fort Macon. One specimen was received at the State 
Museum, February, 1897. 

13. Cabot's Tern. Sterna sandvicensis acufavida. (Cabot.) 
Common migrant on the coast principally, but also a rare winter 

visitor. 

14. ForsTEr's Tern. Stcma forstcri. (Nutt.) 

This, like the above species, is a migrant, but also, sparingly a 
winter resident. 

15. Common Tern. Sterna himndo. (Linn.) 

Common migrant along the southern part of the coast ; summer 
visitor along Currituck Sound. 

16. Least Tern. Sterna antiUamm. (Less.) 

Summer resident on the coast, breeding in great numbers. They 
arrive in April and leave in October, nesting during the latter part 
of May and early June. 

17. Sooty Tern. Sterna fuliginosa. (Gmel.) 
Common migrant on the coast. 

18. Black Tern. Hydrochelidon nigra snrinamensis. (Gmel.) 
Migrant on the coast ; seems to be an irregular summer visitor 

about Raleigh, being observed there during the summers of 1884, 
1888 and 1892. 

Family RYNCHOPID/E. Skimmers. 

19. Black Skimmer. Rynchops ni^ra. (Linn.) 

Common on the northern part of the coast in summer, probably 
breeding ; migrants along the southern part of the coast. 



202 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Family PROCELLARIDyE. Fulmars and Shearwaters. 

20. Cory's vShearwater. Puffinus horcalis. (Cory.) 
Recorded by Atkinson, being identified by him from a wing of a 

shearwater taken at Beaufort. 

21. Greater Shearwater. Puffinus major. (Faber.) 
Maynard writes in a letter of late date, " I have just returned 

from a trip to the Bahamas, and on our way up, when off Cape 
Hatteras, some fifty miles out, I saw a number of greater shear- 
waters. This was July 4, 1897. 

22. Sooty Shearwater. Pnffinus stricklandi. (Ridgw. ) 

One specimen was taken by Dr. Coues, May 21, 1870, another 
was taken at Beaufort, June 8, 1892, by H. H. Brimley. 

Family SULID*. Gannets. 

23. GannET. Sula hassana. (Linn.) 

Several were recorded by Dr. Coues at Fort Macon in 1869-70, 
being seen during the foul weather. 

Family PHALACROCORACID/E. Cormorants. 

23. Double-crested Cormorant. Phalacrocorax dilofhus. 

(Sw. & Rich.) 

Very common visitor on the coast in winter ; one specimen taken 
near Asheville, November, 1887. 

25. Florida Cormorant. Phalacrocorax dilo-phus Jioridanus. 
(And.) 

Tolerably common on the coast in summer, except the very 
hottest months, probably breeds. 

Family PELICANtD>E. Pelicans. 

26. American White Pelican. Pelecaniis arythrorhynchos. 
(Gmel.) 

One was taken by Brimley at Raleigh in 1884; in May, 1889, a 
flock of forty went up the French Broad river, five of which were 
taken by Cairns. 

27. Brown Pelican. Pelecanus fuscus. (Linn.) 
An irregular summer visitor on the coast. 

Family ANATID^. Ducks, Geese and Swans. 

28. American Merganser. Mcrcr-anser americanus. (Cass.) 
Common winter visitor on the coast ; tolerably spring transient 

in the mountains. 

29. Red-breasted Merganser. Merganser scrrator. (Linn.) 
Abundant winter visitor along the water courses of the eastern 

section. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



203 



30. Hooded Merganser. Lofhodytes cnruUatus. (Linn.) 
Winter visitor, common in the eastern section, rare in the mid- 
dle ; tolerably common spring transient in the west. 

31. Mallard Duck. Anas boschas. (Linn.) 

Winter visitor; common in the east, tolerably common in the 
middle section ; not a common transient in the mountains. 

32. Black Duck. Anas ohscura. (Gmel.) 

Common in the east, rare in the middle section ; winter visitant. 

T^T,- Gadwall. Anas strcpera. (Linn.) _ 

Common in the eastern section, rare in the middle ; winter visi- 
tor. 

34. Widgeon. Avas fenclefc. (Linn.) 

Maynard says, " It is really a regular visitant every season, es- 
pecially in the sounds of North Carolina." One was taken on the 
property of the Currituck Shooting Club, January, 1897. 

35. BaldpaTE. Anas americana. (Gmel.) 
Common winter visitor, confined to the eastern section. 

36. Green-winged Teal. Anas carolincnsls. (Gmel.) 

Rare transient in the western and middle sections ; common win- 
ter visitor in the east. 

37. Blue-winged Teal. Anas discors. (Linn.) 

Tolerably common transient in the western and middle sections ; 
common winter visitor in the east. 

38. Shoveller Duck. Sftnla dyfeata. (Lmn.) 
Tolerably common spring transient in the mountains ; common 

winter visitor in the east. 

39. Pintail Duck. Da-fila acuta, (Linn.) 
Common winter visitor on the coast. 

40. Wood Duck. Aix sfonsa. (Linn.) 

Tolerably common resident in the eastern and middle sections ; 
rare summer visitor in the mountains. Breeds in all sections of 
the State. 

41. Redhead Duck. Ay thy a americana. (Eyt.) 

Rare transient in the mountains ; rare winter visitor in the mid- 
dle section ; common on the coast. 

42. Canvass-back Duck. Aythya valHsneria. (Wils.) 

Very common on Currituck Sound, as observed by H. H. Bnm- 
ley ; Dr. Cones never saw it at Fort Macon. 

43. American Scaup Duck. Aythya marila nearctia. (Stejn.) 
Tolerably common transient in the mountains ; rare winter visi- 
tor in the middle section ; tolerably common in the east as a winter 
visitor. 



Wi N. C. AGRICULTURx\L EXPERIMENT STATION. 

44. Lesser Scaup Duck. Ay//iva affinis. (Eyt.) 

Common on the coast, rare in the central portion, winter visitor ; 
rare transient in tlie mountains. 

45. Ring-neck Duck. Aythya collaris. (Donov.) 

Rare transient in the mountains ; common winter visitor on the 
coast. 

46. American Golden-eye. Claugula claugula amcricana. 
( Bonap. ) 

Common winter visitor on tlie coast ; rare transient in the moun- 
tains. 

47. Barrow's Golden-eve. Clanirula islandica, (Gmeh) 
One taken by Cairns near Asheville, May 6, 1893 ; a specimen 

in the State Museum is a rare form of C. islandica, or an interme- 
diate between C. islandica and C. clano-ula amcricana ; a specimen 
was received at the State Museum which was determined to be C. 
islandica^ in early part of February, 1897. 

48. BuFFLE-HEAD DuCK. Charitouuftta albcola. (Linn.) 
Winter visitor, coast, common; middle region, rare; mountains, 

rare transient. 

49. Old Squaw. Harclda hy emails. (Linn.) 

Tolerably common winter visitor on the coast ; accidental in the 
mountains, one taken February, 1887. 

50. White-winged Scooter. Oidcmia deglanai. (Bonap.) 
Tolerably common on the coast in winter. 

51. Surf Scooter. O/dcmia fersfic'dlata. (Linn.) 
Very common on the coast in winter. 

52. Ruddy Duck. Erismatura jamaiccnsis. (Wils.) 
Common winter visitor on the coast. 

53. Blue Goose. Chen avmlc^ccus. (Linn.) 

Accidental. One live specimen was seen in possession of S. J. 
Moore, Beaufort, by Atkinson, which was taken on Bogue beach 
one mile from Fort Macon. 

54. (tREATER Snow Goose. Chen hyperhorca nivalis. (Forst.) 
Common on Pamlico Sound and northward in winter. 

55. American White-fronted Goose. Anser albifrons o-am- 
heli. (Hartl.) 

One taken in Buncombe County by Cairns ; one taken on Curri- 
tuck Sound, January, 1897. 

56. Canada Goose. Brant a canadensis. (Linn.) 

_ Tolerably common transient in the mountain and middle sec- 
tions ; common winter visitor all through the eastern section. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 205 

57. Brant. Br ant a hernicla. (Linn.) 
Common winter visitor on the coast. 

58. Barnacle Goose. Branta leucopsls. (Bechst.) 

Dr. Allan, in " Birds of Massachusetts," says, " It has been taken 
in North Carolina." 

59. Whistling Swan. Olor columbianus. (Ord.) 
Common on the coast and adjacent waters in winter. 

Family CICONIIDyE. Storks and Ibes. 

60. Wood Ibis. Tantalus loculatoj-. (Linn.) 

Accidental summer visitor in the middle section, one specimen 
taken so far. 

Family ARDEiD;€. Herons and Bitterns. 

61. American Bittern. Boiaums lentiglnosus . (Montag.) 
Tolerably common transient in the mountain and middle sec- 
tions ; resident in the eastern section. 

62. Least Bittern. Ardctta exilis. (Gmel.) 

Only two specimens reported from the mountain section ; rare 
summer visitor in the middle section, breeding ; tolerably common 
summer visitor in the east. 

63. Great Blue Heron. Ardea herodias. (Linn.) 
Resident in all portions, perhaps rarer to the west. Breeds 

throughout its range. 

64. American Egret. Ardea egretta. (Gmel.) 

Summer visitor ; rare in the middle section ; tolerably common 
in the east. 

65. Snowy Heron. Ardea candidissima. (Gmel.) 

One specimen taken by Cairns in the mountains ; tolerably com- 
mon summer resident in the eastern section. 

66. Little Blue Heron. Ardea ccemiea. (Linn.) 
Tolerably common summer resident in all portions, breeding. 

67. Green Heron. Ardea virescens. (Linn.) 

Common summer visitor, breeding throughout the State. Com- 
monly called " Scouk," " Schytepoke," etc. 

68. Black-crowned Night Heron. Nycticorax nycticorax nce- 
vitis. (Bodd.) 

Probably a summer resident in the east, one immature bird taken 
and another seen at Shackleford Banks, Carteret County, by H. H. 
Brimley ; specimens from Buncombe County are in the State 
Museum. 



20e N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

69. Yellow- CROWNED Night Heron. Nycticorax violaceus. 
(Ivinn.) 

Atkinson reported one from Beaufort in 1887 ; one was exhib- 
ited in the meat at the Newbern F'air, 1892 ; an immature female 
taken at Raleigh on June 25, 1884, and a male July 15, same year. 

Family RALLID/E. Raits. Galiinules and Coots. 

70. King Rail, BalJus elegans. (And.) 

Summer visitor in all portions ; common in the east, rarer to the 
west. Occasionally seen in eastern and middle sections during the 
winter season. Breeds, probably, throughout its range. Eggs 
taken from the middle section are in my collection. 

71. Clapper Rail. Rallus cre-pitans. (Gmel.) 

Common resident in the marshes of the eastern section, breeding 
abundantly. 

72. Virginia Rail. Ralhis virginlamis. (Linn.) 

Reported as a rare transient visitor in the middle section ; speci- 
mens seen April, 1889, and March, 1891 ; common transient in the 
east. 

73. SORA. Porzana Carolina. (Linn.) 

Tolerably common transient in the mountains ; one specimen 
seen near Raleigh by H. H. Brimley December, 1890. 

74. Yellow Rail. Porzana novehoracensis. (Gmel.) 

Rare transient in the mountains ; one captured alive near Raleigh 
by Brimley September, 1882 ; one observed by Dr. Cones April 12, 
1 87 1, at Fort Macon ; two specimens at the Newbern Fair, 1892. 

75. Black Rail. Porzana jamaicensis. (Gmel.) 

Rare summer visitor in the middle and western sections, breed- 
ing. Eggs have been taken near Asheville, Statesville and Raleigh. 

76. Purple GallinulE. lonomis martinica. (Linn.) 
Accidental summer visitor in the middle section. 

77. Florida Gallinule. lonomis gale aia. (Licht.) 

Rare spring transient in the mountains ; one specimen taken by 
Brimley in Newbern in 1885, one by Brewster near Asheville in 
1885, one by myself in Bertie County in 1890, and one in Orange 
County in 1892. 

78. American Coot. Fulica americana. (Gmel.) 

Rare transient in the mountains ; several taken by Brimley in 
the middle section ; common on the coast. 

Family PHALAROPODID/E. Phaiaropes. 

79. Northern Phalarope. Phahrropns lobatus. (Linn.) 

" Where they go for safety when those gales for which the region 



ORNITHOLOGY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 207 

about Cape Hatteras is famous, sweep over the ocean, I know not." 
( Vide " Birds of Eastern North America," Maynard). 

Family RECURVIROSTRIOyE. Avocets and Stilts. 

80. American Avocet. Recurvirostra americana. (Gmel.) 
Dr. Cones identified this species on the 12th of September, 1870, 

when a f]ock of six was seen at Fort Macon. 

Family SCOLOPACID^. Snipes, Sandpipers, etc. 

81. American Woodcock. Philohela minor. (Gmel.) 
Tolerably common resident in all portions, breeding. I have 

taken badly-incubated eggs on the ist of March. 

82. Wilson's Snipe. Gallinago delicator. (Ord.) 

Common winter resident in the eastern and middle sections ; 
spring transient in the mountains. 

83. DowiTCHER. Macrorampus griseus. (Gmel.) 

Abundant migrant and perhaps a casual winter resident on the 
coast ; rare summer visitor in the middle section. 

84. Long-billed Dowitcher. Macrorampus scolopaceus. (Say.) 
Recorded by Prof. Atkinson, who identified it from one speci- 
men seen at Beaufort. 

85. Knot. Tringa canntus. (Linn.) 

Two specimens were received at the State Museum from Car- 
teret County, by the Curator, May 21, 1897. 

86. Pectoral Sandpiper. Tringa maculata. (Veill.) 
Transient visitor ; common on the coast, rare in the middle sec- 
tion. 

87. WhiTE-rumped Sandpiper. Tringa fuscicollis. (Veill.) 
Common on the coast during the migrations. 

88. Least Sandpiphr. Tringa mimitilla. (Veill.) 

Rare transient in the mountain and middle sections ; very com- 
mon on the coast, both spring and fall. 

89. Red-backed Sandpiper. Tringa alpina pacifica. (Coues.) 
Abundant migrant on the coast, a few, probably, remaining all 

the winter. 

90. Semipalmated Sandpiper. Ereunctes pusilliis. (Linn.) 
Very abundant on the coast during the migrations. 

91. Sanderling. Calidris arenaria. (Linn.) 
Abundant winter resident on the coast. 

92. Marbled Godwit. Limosa fedoa. (Linn.) 

Common during the migrations along the coast, and probably 



208 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

summers along the northern part ; Maynard reports it common at 
Beaufort and southward, November 17, 1876. 

93. Greater Yellow-legs. Totanus melanoleucus, (Gmel.) 
Common migrant on the coast ; tolerably common transient in 

the middle section ; rare in the mountains. 

94. Yellow-legs. Totanus Jiavipes. (Gmel.) 

Transient ; rare in the mountains, tolerably common in the mid- 
dle and eastern sections. 

95. Solitary Sandpiper. Totanus solitarins. (Wils.) 
Transient visitor in all portions; rare in mountains; not abun- 
dant in the middle and eastern sections. 

96. WiLLET. Symphemia semipalmata. (Gmel.) 

Resident on the coast, not so abundant during the colder months, 
breeds. 

97. Ruff. Pavoncella piignax. (Linn.) 

Accidental in the middle section. One female taken at Raleigli 
on May 6, 1892, by H. H. Brimley. 

98. Bartramian Sandpiper. Bartramia longicatida. (Bechst.) 
Tolerably common transient in the middle section. 

99. Spotted Sandpiper. Actitis maciilaria. (Linn.) 
Common migrant and summer resident on the coast, breeding ; 

common transient in the middle section ; a few summer on the 
Neuse river ; rare summer visitor in the mountains, but a common 
migrant. 

100. Long-billed Curlews JVtimenijis longirostris. (Wils.) 
Common resident on the coast, more common during the migra- 
tions. In all probabilitv it breeds, but no eggs have been taken so 
far. 

loi. HUDSONIAN Curlew. Numcnms hiuhonictis. (Lath.) 

Two specimens were received at the State Museum from Craven 
County, spring of 1897. 

Family CHARADRIID/E. Plovers. 

102. Black-bellied Plover. Squatarot squataroltf^a. (Linn.) 
Abundant during the migrations, especially in October ; re- 
ported by Maynard as common at Southport in December, 1876. 

103. American Golden Plover. Sqtialarola doniinicus. (Mull.) 
Rare transient in middle and mountain sections. 

104. Killdeer Plover. ^^giaUtis vocifcra. (Linn.) 
Common winter visitor in the east, arriving early in fall and re- 
maining late in spring ; tolerably common resident in'the middle 
section ; rare summer visitor in the mountains. Breeds wherever 
it spends the summer. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 209 

105. Semipalmated Plover, ^gialitis semipahnata. (Bonap.) 
Transient visitor ; common on the coast, rare in the middle sec- 
tion. 

106. Piping Plover. yEgialttts mclodia. (Ord.) 
Common migrant on the coast. 

107. Wilson's Plover. ALgialUis wihonia. (Ord.) 
Summer resident on the coast, breeding abundantly. 

Family APHRIZIO^. Surf Birds and Turnstones. 

108. Turnstone. Arcnaria interfres, (Linn.) 

Very common on the coast during the migrations, and some may 
winter along the southern part. 

Family HAEMATROPODID/E. Oyster-Catchers. 

109. American Oyster-Catcher. Hcematofus falliatiis. 
(Temm.) 

Observed by Maynard in November, 1876, at Southport, where 
they were evidently established for the winter. Several were ex- 
hibited at the Newbern Fair in 1892 in the meat, said to have been 
taken in the vicinity. 

Family TETRAONID/E. Grouse, Partridges, etc. 

1 10. Bob-White. Colimis virgininnus. (Linn.) 

Common resident in all portions of the State, breeding abun- 
dantly throughout its range. 

111. Ruffed Grouse. Bonasa umbellus. (Linn.) 

This species is common on the higher mountains, where it breeds, 
not so common in the valleys as formerly. Confined entirely to 
the mountain section. 

Family PHASIANID/E. Pheasants, etc. 

112. Wild Turkey. Mcleagris gallofavo. (Linn.) 
Resident in all portions ; common in the east, rarer westward. 

Breeds throughout its range. Eggs in my collection average larger 
than those of the domestic turkey. 

Family COLUMBID/E. Pigeons. 

113. Passenger Pigeon. Ectopistes mig^-atorius. (Linn.) 
Accidental in the middle section ; very rare transient in the 

mountains, passing above 1,000 feet. 

114. Mourning Dove. Zenaidurd macroura. (Linn.) 
Common resident throughout the State, breeding. 

115. Ground Dove. Co/iuiihigalliiui passcn'na terresfris. (Chap.) 
Accidental summer visitor in the mountains, two specimens seen 



210 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

and identified by Cairns. H. Gould Welborne says it is a rare sum- 
mer resident in Davidson County, breeding. An egg in my collec- 
tion taken by him must be of this species, as it conforms with other 
specimens of this species in my collection, in every particular. 
This is the most northern record of this species breeding. 

Family CATHARTID/t. American Vultures. 

ii6. Turkey Vulture. Cathartes aura. (Linn). 

Common resident, generally distributed. Breeds in all sections. 
Usually known by the name " North Carolina Buzzard." 

117. Blck Vulture. Cathaista at rata. (Bartr). 

Common resident in the eastern and middle sections ; not very 
common in the mountains ; breeds. This is the " South Carolina 
Buzzard." 

Family FALCONIO/€. Vultures, Falcons, Hawks, Eagles, etc. 

118. Swallow-tailed Kite. Elanoides forficatns. (Linn). 

A few seen every fall in the higher mountains. One specimen 
from Craven County in State Museum. 

119. Marsh Hawk. Circus hiidsonius. (Linn). 

Common resident in the east, probably breeding ; tolerably com- 
mon winter visitor in the middle section ; not a common autumn 
transient in the mountains. 

120. Sharp-shinned Hawk. Accipitcr velox. (Wils). 
Tolerably common, generally distributed resident throughout the 

State. Cairns has observed it in Buncombe County. 

121. Cooper's Hawk. Acdfiter cooperi. (Bonap.) 
Common resident in all portions, breeding. Eggs are in my 

collection taken by Cairns in Buncombe County, and by myself in 
Beaufort County. 

122. Red-tailed Hawk. Buteo borealis. (Gmel.) 

Rather rare resident throughout the State. Breeds. I took a 
set of two eggs in 1890, nest was placed in top of a swamp pine one 
hundred and twenty-seven feet high. 

123. Red-shouldered Hawk. Butco llneatus. (Gmel.) 
Common resident in all parts of the State. Breeds. Eggs are 

in my collection from Wake County. 

124. Swainson's Hawk. Buteo swainsoni. (Bonap.) 
Accidental in the mountain region. 

125. Broad-winged Hawk. Buteo latissimus. (Wils.) 

Rare summer visitor in the middle and mountain sections, breed- 
ing in both places. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 211 

126. American"! Rough-legged Ham^k. Archilmtco lagopus 
sancii-/oh(innts. (Gmel.) 

Seen occasionally in winter and spring in the nionntainous 
sections. 

127. Golden Eagle. Aquila chrysaetos. (Linn.) 
Tolerably common in the mountain section for an eagle. Breeds 

on the cliffs of the higher mountains. 

128. Bald Eagle. Halhcetus leucocephahis. (Linn.) 
Common resident in the east ; tolerably common in the moun- 
tains ; not reported from the middle section. Breeds in both the 
eastern and western sections ; common to the east ; perhaps a dozen 
nests are on the banks of the Pamlico river. 

129. Duck Hawk. Falco -pcregrinus anatum. (Bonap.) 
Nearly, if not quite, a resident in the mountain section. Breeds 

on the higher mountains. 

130. Pigeon Hawk. Falco cohimbarius. (Linn.) 
Rather rare transient in the middle and western sections. 

131. American Sparrow Hawk. Falco s^atveriiis. (Linn.) 
Common resident, generally distributed. Breeds throughout the 

its range. 

132. American OSPREY. Pandion haliceettis caroUnensis. (Gmel.) 
Common resident in the east ; rare transient visitor in the middle 

section ; rare summer visitor in the mountains. Breeds in both 
eastern and western sections. 

Family STRIGID/E. Barn Owls. 

133. American Barn Owl. Strix fratincola. (Bonap.) 
Reported as occasionally seen by Coues at Fort Macon ; one 

started from a bunch of live oaks at Southport by Maynard in 
in 1876 ; one taken by James Moore at Newport in 1889 ; one taken 
near New Bern in 1892 ; one taken by Brim ley near Raleigh in 
January, 1896. 

FamilY BUBONID/E. Horned Owl. 

134. American Long-eared Owl. Asio wihonianus. (Less.) 
Bare winter visitor in the middle and western sections. One 

shot near Asheville in 1889, specimens taken near Raleigh in 1891 
and 1893. 

135. Short-eared Owl. Asio accifitriims. (Pall.) 
Rare transient visitor in the middle and mountain sections. 

136. Barred Owl. Syrnium nebidosum. (Forst.) 

Common resident, generally distributed. Breeds. Eggs are in 
my collection from Wake County. 



212 N. C. RICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

137. Saw-whet Owl. Nyctala acadica. (Gmel.) 

A mounted specimen exhibited at the New Bern Fair in 1892 ; 
one female taken near Raleigh on December 18, 1894, by Brimley ; 
one taken in Wake County December 4, 1897, and carried to the 
State Museum. 

138. Screech Owl. Megasco-ps asio. (Linn.) 

Common resident, generally distributed throughout the State. 
Breeds. I have a set of three eggs from the middle section, have 
taken young ones on several occasions. 

139. Great Horned Owl. Bubo virginianus. (Gmel.) 

Not a very common resident, though generally distributed. 
Probably breeds iu all sections ; eggs have been taken by Cairns 
and Brimley. 

140. Snowy Owl. Nyctea nyctea. (Linn.) 

Cairns wrote me that he had seen a " white owl " once, and had 
been informed that it was often seen a few miles west of Weaver- 
ville during the winter months. A specimen received at State 
Museum December 4, 1897, from Pamlico County. 

Family PSITTACID/E. 

141. Carolina Paroquet. Coni-tis carolinensls. (Linn.) 

I think this species should hardly be classed among our birds, as 
the last record was that of Catesby in 1731, though South Caro- 
lina has a record in 1851. This species is now confined to Flor- 
ida, and in all probability will never be found any further north, 
as it is rapidly becoming extinct. 

Family CUCULIDI/E. Cuckoos. Anis, Etc. 

142. Yellow-billed Cuckoo. Coccyzus americamis. (Linn) 
Common summer visitor in the eastern and middle sections ; 

irregular summer visitor in the mountains. Breeds throughout its 
range. 

143. Black-billed Cuckoo. Cocyzus erythro-phthalmus. (Wils.) 
Rather rare summer visitor in all sections. Breeds. Es'SfS are 

in my collection from Bertie County, collected by R. P. Smithwick. 

Family ALCEDINID/E. Kingfishers. 

144. Belted Kingfisher. Ceryle alcyon. (Linn.) 
Common resident in the eastern and middle sections ; a common 

migrant in the west ; few remaining throughout the summer. 
Breeds in all sections. 

Family PICIDI/E. Woodpeckers, 

145. Iyory-billed Woodpecker. Camfephihis principalis. 
(Linn.) 

Wilson took a specimen about twelve miles north of Wilming- 



ORNITHOLOGY OF NORTH CAROLINA. gig 

ton, and carried it into the city ; this bird was slightly wounded in 
one of its wings. This was in the thirties of the present century. 
In a paper by Cones and Yarrow on the Natural History of Fort 
Macon, published in 1876, they say : " Information was received 
from an apparently good source of the occurrence of this species, 
whose appearance was described with tolerable exactness, but the 
statement is given for what it is worth, no specimen having been 
seen." May possibly be found in some of the deep swamps of 
the south-eastern part of the State at the present time. 

146. Hairy Woodpecker. Dryobatesvillosns. (Linn.) 
Rather rare resident in the western section. A few breed on the 

higher mountains. 

147. Southern Hairy Woodpecker. Dryobates villosns audo- 
honii. (Swains ) 

Generally distributed ; common resident throughout the State. 
Breeds ; have taken eggs in Bertie County. 

148. Southern Downy Woodpecker. Dryobates fubescens. 
(Linn.) 

Common resident in all sections, breeding 

149. Downy Woodpecker. Dryobates pubcscens mediamis. 
(Linn.) 

A resident of the higher mountains, probably breeding. 

150. Red-cockaded Woodpecker. Dryobates borealis. (Veill.) 
Tolerably common resident in the east, more numerous some 

seasons than others ; one female taken by Brimley at Raleigh, 
April 22, 1 89 1. Breeds in the eastern section, several sets have 
been taken by R. P. Smithwick, one of which is at present in my 
collection. 

151. Yellow-bellied Sapsucker. Sfhraficusvarins. 
(Linn.) 

Tolerably common winter visitor in the middle sections ; resi- 
dent in the western section, breeding on the higher mountains. 

152. PiLEATED Woodpecker. Ceo fhloeus file atus. (Linn.) 
Resident in all portions ; common in the east, rarer westward. 

Breeds, probably, in all sections ; eggs have been taken by Cairns, 
and I have frequently seen nests in the eastern section. 

153. Red-headed Woodpecker. Melanerfes erythrocefhalus. 
(Linn.) 

Tolerably common resident in all portions. I have found it 
breeding in the east, and Cairns has taken eggs in the west. 

154. Red-bellied Woodpecker. Melanerfes caroUnus. (Linn.) 
Irregular resident in all portions ; sometimes common, at others 

rare. Breeds on Craggy mountains. 



214 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

155. Flicker. Colaftcs aurahts. (Linn.) 

Generally distributed common resident throughout the State. 
Breeds in all portions. Eggs taken in the eastern and middle sec- 
tions are in my collection. 

Family CAPRIMULGID/E. Goatsuckers. 

156. Chuck-Will's-Widow. Antrostomus caroUnens\s. (Gmel.) 
Common summer visitor in the eastern sections. Breeds. Eggs 

have been taken in Bertie, Edgecombe and Wake counties. 

157- Whip-Poor-Will. Antroslomiis voci/crvs. (Wils.) 

Common summer visitor in all sections, generally distributed. 
Breeds. 

158. NKtHThawk Chordcilcs virginiamis. (Gmel.) 
Tolerably common summer visitor throughout the State. Breeds. 

Family !VIICROPODID>E. Swifts. 

159, Chimney Swift. ChtHura felagica. (Linn.) 
Common summer visitor, generally distributed and breeding in 

all sections. 

Family TROCHILID/E. Hummingbirds. 

160 RuBY-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD. Trochilus cohihris. 

(Linn.) 

Common summer visitor in all portions of the State, breeding 
throughout its range Eggs are in my collections from all sections. 

Family TYRANNID>E, Tyrant Flycatchers. 

161. Kingbird. Tyrannus tyrannus. (Linn.) 

Summer visitor, common in all portions. Common breeder 
throughout its range. 

162. Crested Flycatcher. Mxiarchus crinitus. (Linn.) 
Common summer visitor in all portions ; common breeder. 

163. PnoeBE. Sayornis -phivbe. (Lath.) 

Common summer visitor in all sections, a few wintering in the 
mountains. Eggs have been taken m the middle and western 
sections. 

164. Olive-sided Flycatcher. Conto-pus borealis. (Swains.) 
Rare summer visitor in the west ; breeding on the Black Moun- 
tains. 

165. Wood Pewee. Contofus virens. (Linn.) 

Common summer visitor throughout the State ; common breeder. 

166. Yellow-bellied Flycatcher. JEmpidonax Jlaviventris. 
(Baird.) " • 

Rare transient in the middle section ; one taken on August 11, 
1890, in the mountains. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 215 

167. Green-crested Elycatcher. Emfldonax vircsccns. 
(Gmel.) 

Yery common summer visitor in all sections, breedino; abun- 
dantly. 

168. Alder Flycatcher. Emfidonax tralllH alnornni , 
(Brewster.) 

One taken by Cairns in the mountains, September, 1889 ; one 
taken in Wake County by Brimley, May, 1892. 

169. Least Flycatcher. Empidou ix mijiinns. (Baird.) 
Rare summer visitor in the mountains. Observed breeding by 

Cairns. 

Family ALAUDID/E. Larks. 

170. Horned Lark. Otocoris alpcstris. (Linn.) 

Winter visitor ; rare in the middle section, tolerably common in 
the mountains. 

171. Prairie-horned Lark. Otocoris alpestris practical a. 
(Hench.) 

Rare winter visitor in the mountains ; tolerably but irregular, 
winter visitor in the middle section ; specimens taken at Raleigh, 
winters of '86, '87, '93 and '95 in company with O. alpcstris. 

Family CORVIDyE. Crows. Jays, Magpies, Etc. 

172. Blue Jay. Cyanocitta cristata. (Linn.) 

Common resident, generally distributed. Breeds in all sectioui ; 
eggs are in my collection from the mountains. 

173. American Raven. Corvus corax siniiatns. (Wngl.) 
Cairns reported this species as a tolerably common resident in 

the western section, breeding on Craggy Mountains in March. 

174. Northern Raven. Corvus corax principalis. (Ridgw.) 
Rather rare irregular winter visitor in the eastern section. 

175. xA.MERICAn Crow. Corvs Aiucricauus. (i\ud.) 
Resident, very common in the east, common in other sections. 

Breeds in all portions. 

176. Fish Crow. Corvus ossifragus. (Wils.) 

Very common resident in the east and along the coast, not so 
numerous in the summer. (Breeds.) 

Family ICTERID/E. Blackbirds. Orioles. Etc. 

177. Bobolink. Dolichonyx oryzivorus. (Linn.) 

Common transient visitor in all sections. Some seasons large 
flocks appear in the eastern section and destroy much grain. Gen- 
erally known by the name of " Rice Bird." 



216 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

178. COWBIRD. Molathrtis ater . (Bodd.) 

Common spring transient in the mountains ; common winter 
visitor in the middle and western sections. 

179. Red-winged Blackbird Agelains phcvniceus. (Linn.) 
Common resident in the eastearn and middle sections ; summer 

visitor in the mountains. Breeds ; eggs are in my collection from 
the centrcl and eastern sections of the State. 

180. Meadow Lark. StumcUa magna. (Linn.) 
'Common winter visitor in the middle and western sections, may 

be a rare summer resident in the mountains, said to breed near 
Asheville. Resident in the east, though not so common in sum- 
mer ; breeding. 

180. Orchard Oriole. Icterus spur ins. (Linn.) 

Summer visitor ; common in the western and middle sections, 
rather rare in the east. Breeds in all sections. 

182. Baltimore Oriole. Icterus galbula. (Linn.) 

Rare transient in the middle section ; common summer visitor 
in the mountains, probably breeding. Have never observed it in 
the east. 

183. Rusty Blackbird. Scolccophagus carolimis. (Mull.) 
Tolerably common transient visitor in all sections. 

184. PuPRLE GracklE. ^dscaliis qtciscula. (Linn.) 
Transient visitor in the eastern and middle sections ; rather rare 

summer visitor in the mountains. Has been observed breeding in 
Asheville, and reported breeding in Newbern. 

185. Bronzed Grackle. J^u'scahis quiscula ceneus. (Ridgw.) 
Five specimens were taken in Buncombe county on August 11, 

1890, by Cairns; two specimens were taken at Raleigh by Brim- 
ley, November 14, 1893. 

186. Boat-tailed Grackle. .^uiscalus major. (Vill.) 
Abundant resident in the east, confined mainly to the coast. 

iVbundant breeder. I took a set of five eggs from an ivey-covered 
tree in Plymouth, in April, 1890 ; several pairs were nesting in the 
same tree at that time. 

Family FRINGILLID/E. Finches. Sparrows. Etc. 

187. Purple Finch. Cariyodacus pnrpureus. (Gmel.) 
Common winter visitor in the eastern and middle sections ; com- 
mon spring transient in the mountains. Brewster thinks it breeds 
near Old Fort. 

188. American Crossbill. Loxia cnrvirostra mi>ior. (Brehm. ) 
Rare transient in the middle section ; resident in the west, a few 

breed on Black Mountain. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 217 

189. American Goldfinch. Spinus frisfis. (Wils.) 
Common resident in the western and middle sections ; common 

transient in the east. Breeds in middle and western sections, eggs 
are in my collection from both places. 

190. Pine Siskin. Spinas piiiits. (Wils.) 

Winter visitor in middle and western sections ; common on the 
Black Mountains in summer, probably breeding. 

191. Lapland Longspur. Calcan'ns lappouiciis. (Linn.) 
Irregular winter visitor in the middle section ; one was taken at 

Raleigh, January 13, 1893, and another seen on the following day ; 
four specimens were taken, and another seen at Raleigh, February 
20, 1895. They were in company with prairie-horned larks. 

192. Vesper Sparrow. Puoccetcs g-raiiiincus. (Gmel.) 
Common winter visitor in the eastern and middle sections ; resi- 
dent in the mountains. A set of eggs was taken by Joe H. Arm- 
field, June I, 1893, near Greensboro. 

193. Savnnnah Sparrow, ^iiuniodi-anins scDidii'icciisis savaiuui. 
(Wils.) 

Very common winter visitor throughout the State. 

194. Grasshopper Sparrow. Aininodraiuiis savaimamsn pas- 
ser inns. (Wils.) 

Rare transient east of the central section ; tolerably common 
summer visitor in the west, breeding. Eggs were taken by Arm- 
field, near Greensboro, 1896. 

195. Henslow's Sparrow. Aninwdramiis hcnslozuii. And.) 
Rare transient in middle and western sections ; one taken in 

Buncombe county by Cairns, April, 1890, one at Raleigh by Brim- 
ley, in 1895, and two specimens in April, 1894. 

196. Leconte'S Sparrow. Anunodrainu Icconteii. (Aud.) 
One specimen taken by Brimley on edge of meadow adjoining 

Walnut Creek, In Wake county, April 21, 1894. 

197. Sharp-tailed Sparrow. Aniuiodranmscau'daciifns. (Gmel.) 
This is a very common bird on the coast among the marshes, 

and I think it is resident. Common breeder. 

198. Seaside Sparrow. Auiuiodrauius niaritinius. (Wils.) 
What was said of the above species can also be said of this. I 

took a specimen in a marsh near ply mouth. May 15, 1891 ; a num- 
ber was seen on Bogue Beach, by H. H. Brimley, July 6, 1894. 
Breeds. 

199. Lark Sparrow. Chondestes grinnniacus, (Say.) 
Rare summer visitor at Raleigh. Breeds, 



218 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

200. White.CROWNEd Sparrow. Zonotrichia Icucophrys (Forst.) 
Rare migrant in the west, young male taken October 16, 1889, 

in Buncombe county, by Cairns ; accidental Raleigh. 

201. White-throated Sparrow. Zonotrichia albkolUs. (Gmel.) 
Abundant winter visitor in all sections of the State. 

202. Chipping Sparrow. Spize/Ia socia/is. (Wils.) 
Common summer visitor in the mountain and middle sections ; 

resident in the east. Breeds throughout the State. 

203. Clay-colored Sparrow. Spizdla pullida. (Swains.) 
Only record is that of Atkinson, one taken at Chapel Hill, March 

8, 1886. 

204. Field Sparrow. Sfizella pucilla. (Wils.) 

Common, generally distributed resident throught all sections. 
Breeds. 

205. EnglIvSH Sparrow. Passer domesticiis. (Linn.) 
Common in town and villages, and rapidly going into the coun- 
try. Breeds. 

206. Slate-colored Junco. yunco hyemalis. (Linn.) 
Abundant winter visitor in all sections. " Snow Bird." 

207. Carolina Junco. yunco hvc/nalis carolinensis. (Brewst.) 
Common resident on the higher mountains of the western sec- 
tion, goes down into the valleys during the winter. Breeds, 

208. Bachman's Sparrow. Peuccea cestivalis bachmanii. (Aud.) 
Summer visitor, tolerably common in the west, but rarer to the 

eastward; one seen at the Newbern Fair, February, 1892. Nests 
have been found ia Buncombe, Guilford, Orange, and Wake coun- 
ties. Found breeding, by Maynard, at Wilmington, June, 1876. 

209. Song Sparrow. Melosfiza fasciaia. (Gmel. 
Common winter visitor throughout all portions of the State. 

210. Lincoln's Sparrow, Melospiza lincului. (Aud.) 

One male taken by Cairns, May 6, 1893, ^^ ^^^^ French Broad 
River. 

211. Swamp Sparrow. Melospiza gear giana. (Lath.) 
Common wintr visitor In the eastern and middle sections ; com- 
mon transient in the mountains. 

212. Fox Sparrow. Passer ella iliaca. (Merr.) 
Common winter visitor in all sections. 

213. Towhee. Pipilo erythrophthahnus. (Linn.) 

Nearly, if not quite a resident in the east ; winter visitor in the 
middle section ; resident in the mountains. Breeds in the west. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 219 

214. Cardinal. Card? na lis cardinalis.. (Linn.) 

Common resident in all portions, breeding. Known as " Red 
Bird." 

215. Rose-breasted Grosbeak. Lavialadia ludoviciana. (Linn.) 
Rare migrant in the middle section ; summer visitor on the 

higher mountains, breeding on Craggy mountains. 

216. Blue Grosbeak. Gtiiraca ccertdea. (Linn.) 
Tolerably common summer visitor in the middle section, where 

it breeds ; rare summer visiror in the mountains. 

217. Indigo Bunting. Passerina cyanea. (Linn.) 

Comman summer visitor iu all portions, breeding throughout its 
range. 

218. Painted Bunting. Passerina ciris. (Linn.) 
Tolerably common summer visitor in the southeastern portion 

of the State. One taken on Bogue Banks, July 6, 1894, by H. H, 
Brimley. 

Family TANAGRID^. Tanagers. 

219. Scarlet Tanager. Piranga crythromelas. (Veiil. 
Common Summer visitor in the mounfains, breeding ; rather 

rare transient in the middle section. 

220. Summer Tanager. Piranga rubra. (Linn.) 

Common summer visitor in all sections, breeding. This is the 
"Little Red Bird." 

Family HIRUNDINID/E. Swallows. 

221. Purple Martin. Prognc sitbis. (Linn.) 

Tolerably common summer visitor in all portions, breeding in 
boxes. 

222. Cliff Swallow. Petrochdidon lunifrons. (Say.) 
Tolerably common transient in the middle and mountain sec- 
tions. 

223. Barn Swallow. CJihlidon crythrogastcr. (Bodd.) 
Transient ; common in the middle section, rare in the moun- 
tains ; not observed in the east. 

224. White-bellied Swallows Tachycineta bicolor. (Veill.) 
Commn Migrant in the middle and eastern portions of the State ; 

winters in the southeastern section. 

225. Bank Swallow. Clivicola ri^aria. (Linn.) 
Rare transient in the middle and mountain sections. 

226. Rough-winged Swallow. Stelgidoftervx serrifeunis. 
(And.) 

Tolerably common summer visitor, generally distributed. Breeds, 
nesting in banks of rivers and in ledges on mountain sides. 



220 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Family AMPELID/E. Waxwings. 

227. Cedar Waxwing. AmpcHs cedoi-tim. (Veill.) 
Common, nearly if not quite resident in the east, resident in the 

other sections. Breeds in the middle and western sections. 

Family LAMID>E. Shrikes. 

228. Loggerhead Shrike. Lanins liidovicianus. (Linn.) 
Rare spring transient in the mountains ; tolerably common win- 
ter visitor in the middle section. Reported breeding at States- 
ville. 

Family VIREOMD/E. Vireos. 

229. Red-eyed VirEO. Mrco olivaccns. (Linn.) 

Common summer visitor in all sections, breeding throughout its 
range. 

230. Philadelphia Vireo. Virco philadclfhiciis. (Cass.) 
Rare transient in the mountains, one taken by Cairns. 

231. Warbling Vireo. Vi?-tw gihiis. (Veill.) 

Tolerably common summer visitor in the mountains, breeding 
along the streams. 

232. Yellow-throated Vireo. Vli-eo fiavi/rons. (Veill.) 
Tolerably common summer visitor in the middle and mountain 

sections. 

233. Blue-headed Vireo. J'irco solifarius. (Wils.) 
Tolerably common transient in the middle section, and seen occa- 
sionally in winter ; rather rare summer visitor in the mountains. 

234. Mountain Solitary Vireo. llrco so/i/an'ous alticola. 
(Brewst.) 

Rare summer visitor at Raleigh, nest with four eggs taken April 
27, 1 891 ; common summer visitor in the mountains, breeding. 

235. White-eyed Vireo. Vlrco novchorarcncis. (Gmel.) 
Common summer visitor in all sections, breeding throughout its 

range. 

Family MNIOTILTID/E. Wood Warblers. 

236. Black and White Warbler. Mniotilta varia. (Linn.) 
Common, generally distributed summer resident, breeding in all 

sections. 

237. Prothonotary Warbler. Protonotaria citrea. (Aud.) 
Rare summer visitor in the middle section ; common in the east. 

Breeds ; I took one set of three eggs from the top of a beech stump 
in Bertie county in spring of 1888, this was the first record for 
North Carolina. Have seen young receiving attention from their 
parents on many occasions since. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 221 

238. Swainson's Warbler. Hdinaia szualnsonii. (And.) 

No record except that of Atkinson: "One specimen taken by 
H. H. Brimley, at Newbern, April 13, 1885." 

239. Worm-eating Warbler. Helmitherns vermivoms. (Gmel.) 
Not a common summer visitor in any section, though generally 

distributed and occurring regularly. Nests with eggs have been 
found in Bertie and Buncombe counties. 

240. Bachman's W'ARBLER. HelmintJwfhila bachniani. (And.) 
One specimen taken by Brimley near Raleigh, April 27, 1891. 

Probably a rare summer visitor. 

241. Blue-winged Warbler. Helminthofhlla ■pimis. (Linn.) 
Rare transient in the middle section ; rare summer visitor in the 

mountains, said to be common in the most western counties. Nest 
with young ones taken by Cairns, in 1885. 

242. Brewster'vS W^^RBLER. Helminthophiia Icncohronchialis. 
(Brewst. ) 

Probablv transient in the middle section, one taken by Brimley, 
September 8, 1888. 

243. Golden-winged W^arbler. Helminihofhila cryso-ptera. 
(Linn.) 

Rare transient in the middle section ; one taken by Brimley, in 
Wake county, August 26, 1886, one May 7, 1889, and one in May, 
1891 ; tolerably common summer visitor in the mountains, breed- 
ing in May. 

244. Nashville Warbler. Helminthofhihi mbricapiUa. 
(Wils.) 

Not a common transient in the mountains. 

245. Orange-crowned W' arbler. Hclmintho-phila cclata. 
(Say.) 

One male specimen has been taken in the mountains by Cairns. 

246. Tennessee W' arbler. Hehuinfuophila peregrina. (Wils.) 
Rare transient in the middle and western sections. 

247. Parula Warbler. Comsothlyfis americana. (Linn.) 
Common summer visitor in all portions, breeding throughout its 
range. 

248. Northern Parula Warbler. Compsothlyfis americana 
usnecp. ( .) 

Transient in the middle section, reported by Brimley, at Raleigh. 

249. Cape May Warbler. Dcndroica tigrina. (Gmel.) 

One female taken by Cairns in Buncombe county, and two 
specimens taken by Brimley in spring of 1892, near Raleigh. 



-1%'2 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

250. Yellow Warbler. Dendroica lestiva. (Gmel.) 
Common resident in the mountain and middle sections, breed- 
ing. Common migrant in the east. 

251. Black-THROATFd Blue Warbler. Dendroica aerulescens. 
(Gmel.) 

Common transient in the eastern and middle sections ; summer 
visitor in the west, breeding above 4,000 feet. A set of eggs is in 
my collection, taken in Buncombe county by Cairns. 

252. Cairns' Warbler. Dendroica ccerulesccns cairnsi. ( — ,) 
First discovered and described by the late John S. Cairns. Breeds 

in the western part of the State. 

253. Myrtle Warbler. Dendroica coronata. (Linn.) 
Common transient in the east, sometimes appearing in flocks ; 

winter visitor in the middle and western sections. 

254. Magnolia Warbler. Dendroica maculosa. (Gmel.) 
Rare transient in the middle section ; summer visitor in the 

mountains, and Cairns says he thinks it must breed, as young ones 
are common in July. 

255. CERULEAN Warbler. Dendroica rara. (Wils.) 

Rare transient, confined to the middle and mountain sections. 

256. Chestnut-sided Warbler. Dendroica pensy/vanica. 
(Linn.) 

Tolerably common transisnt in the middle section ; common 
summer resident in the west, on the higher mountains. Breeds, 
nest was found by Cairns in Buncombe county, May 25, 1887. 

257. Black-Poll Warbler. Dendroica striata. (Forst.) 
Transient ; common in the eastern and middle sections, rather 

rare in the mountains. 

258. Blackburnian Warbler. Dendroica hlackhurnice. (Gmel.) 
Rare transient in the middle section ; common resident on the 

higher mountains. Breeds. 

259. YellOW-TROATED Warbler. Dendroica dominica. 

(Linn.) 

Rather common, generally distributed, summer visitor through- 
out the State. Probably breeds in all sections ; eggs have been 
taken in Wake county. 

260. Sycamore Warbler. Dendroica dominica albilora. 
(Linn.) 
One female taken in Buncombe county by Cairns, April, 1891. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 223 

261. Black-throated Green Warbler. Dendroica vircns, 
(Gmel.) 

Tolerably common transient in all portions of the State except 
the higher mountains, where it is a summer resident, and breeds. 

262. Pine Warbler. Dendroica ligorsii. (Aud.) 

Common resident in the eastern and middle sections ; common 
in the mountain region in summer, not so common in winter. 
Breeds commonh- in all sections. 

263. Yellow Palm Warbler. Dcndruica pal nm rum hy-pochry- 
sea. (Ridgw.) 

Tolerably common transient in all sections. 

264. Prairie Warbler. Dcndruica discolor. (Veill.) 
Common summer visitor in all portions except, probably, the 

higher mountains. Breeds throughout its range. 

265. Oven-bird. Sciums aiirocapiHus. (Linn.) 

Common transient and not a rare summer resident in the eastern 
section ; migrant in the middle section ; common summer sojourner 
in the mountains. Eggs have been taken in the eastern and west- 
ern sections. 

266. Water-Thrush. Sciums novchoraccnsis. (Gmel.) 
Common transient in the middle and mountain sections. 

267. Louisiana Water-Thrush. Sciums niontacilla. (Veill.) 
Tolerably common summer visitor, and breeds in all sections. 

Eggs in my collection are from all sections. 

268. Kentucky Warbler. Gcothlvpis fomiosa . (Wils.) 
Summer visitor ; rare in the middle section, tolerably common 

in the mountains. Breeds in both sections. 

269. Connecticut Warbler. Gcothlypis agilis. (Wils.) 
Rare fall migrant at Raleigh; one taken October 15, 1884; two 

specimens seen in October, 1896. 

270. Maryland Yellow-throat. Gcothlypis trichas. (Linn.) 
Common summer visitor in the middle and western sections ; a 

few winter at Raleigh ; resident in the east, not so common in win- 
ter. Breeds in all sections. 

271. Yellow-breasted Chat. Ictcria vircns. (Linn.) 
Common summer visitor in the middle and mountain sections. 

Breeding. Have never observed it in the east. 

272. Hooded Warbler. Sylvania mitrata. (Gmel.) 
Summer visitor ; rather rare in the middle and mountain sections ; 

very common in the east, breeding abundantly. Have found as 
many as three nests in an hour's walk ; eggs are usually four, some- 
times three, and rarely two in number. 



224 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

273. Wilson's Warbler. Sylvania pusil/a. (Wils.) 

Rare transient in the middle and mountain sections ; specimens 
taken in Wake county May 17, 1888, and May 13, 1892. 

274. Canadian Warbler. Sxhaiiia canadensis. (Linn.l 
Summer visitor in the west ; common on the hio^h mountains, 

where it breeds. One male taken at Raleig-h May 13, 1892. 

275. American Redstart. Sctophaga mti cilia. (Linn.) 
Common transient in the east, rarely seen in summer ; summer 

visitor in the middle and mountain sections, breeding. 

Family MONTACILLID/E. Wagtails. 

276. American Pipit. Anthiis pcnsylvanicus. (Lath.) 
Common winter visitor in the eastern and middle sections ; rare 

transient in the mountains. 

Family TROGLODYTIDyE. Wrens. Thrashers, etc. 

277. Mockingbird. Mi mus poly glottis. (Linn.) 

Abundant resident in the east ; resident at Raleigh, only a few 
remaining through the winter, howe\er ; rare summer visitor in 
the mountains. Breeds in all sections. 

278. Catbird. Galcoscoptcs carolincnsis. (Linn.) 

Very common summer resident, breeding in all sections. Not 
unusual during the winter in the east ; accidental at Raleigh. 

279. Brown Thrasher. Harpor/iviiciins rufus. (Linn.) 
Common resident in the eastern and middle sections; summer 

visitor in the mountains. Breeds. 

280. Carolina Wren. Thryothoms hidoviciainis. (Lath.) 
Common resident in the eastern and middle portions ; summer 

visitor in the mountains. Breeds throusfhout its rang^e. 

281. Bewick's Wren. TJiryomaucs bcn'irkii. (And.) 
Resident on the higher mountains of the west, more common in 

summer ; rare winter visitor at Raleisfh. Breeds in the mountains. 

282. House Wren. Trugiudytcs cedon. (Veill.) 
Rare transient in the middle and mountain sections. 

283. Winter Wren. Troo-/odvtcs /lycnnrlis. (Veill.) 
Common winter visitor in the eastern and middle sections ; not 

an uncommon resident in the mountains, breeding on the higher 
mountains. 

284. Short-billed Marsh Wren. Cistot/?on(s stc/laris. (Licht.) 
One specimen seen by Coues at Fort Macon, October, 11, 1869; 

a few seen at Pungo Bluff, November 13, and common at Juniper 
Bay 15th and i6th of same month, 1876, by ]\Iaynard ; rare autumn 
transient in the mountains. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 225 

285. Long-billed Marsh Wren. Cistothonis palusin's. (Wils.) 
Abundant during the migrations in the east, and may reside 

sparingly throughout the year ; rather common transient in the 
middle and mountain sections. 

Family CERTHIIDyE. Creepers. 

286. Brown Creeper. Ccrthia famaliaris cniicricaiia. (Bonap.) 
Common winter visitor in the eastern and middle sections; not 

a \'ery common resident in the west. A nest with four eggs was 
taken in 1887 by Cairns in the mountains. 

Family PARID/E. Nuthatches and Tits. 

287. White-breasted Nuthatch. Si/fa carolincns/s. (Lath.) 
Tolerably common resident in all sections, breeding throughout 

its range. 

288. Red-breasted Nuthatch. Sitta canadensis. (Linn.) 
Rather rare and irregular winter resident in the middle section ; 

resident on the higher mountains, breeding. 

289. Brown-headed Nuthatch. Sitta fusiUa. (Lath.) 
Common resident in the middle and eastern sections, breeding 

throughout its range. 

290. Tufted Titmouse. Panes Mcolor. (Linn.) 

Resident, common and generally distributed. Breeds in all sec- 
tions. 

291. Chickadee. Pay-its atricafiUus. (Linn.) 
Resident in the mountains above 5,000 feet, breeds. 

292. Carolina Chickadee. Pants carolincnsis. (And.) 
Common resident in all sections. Common breeder. 

Family SYLVIID^. Warblers. Kinglets, anh Gnatcatchers. 

293. Golden-crowned Kinglet. Rcgidns satrafa. (Licht.) 
Common winter visitor in the eastern and middle sections ; resi- 
dent in the west, breeding on Black Mountains above 5,000 feet. 

294. Ruby-crowned Kinglet. Reguhis calendula. (Linn.) 
Common winter visitor in the eastern and middle sections ; tran- 
sient in the mountains. 

295. Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. Polioftila ccentlea. (Linn.) 
Common summer visitor, generally distributed. Breeds in all 

sections. 

Family TURDID/E. Thrushes, Solitares, Stonechats, Bluebirds, etc. 

296. Wood Thrush. Turdns nmsteUnus. (Gmel.) 
Very common summer visitor in all sections, breeds. 



226 N. C. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

297. Wilson's Thrush. Tnrdnsfnsresccns. (Steph.) 
Rather common transient in the eastern and middle sections ; 

common summer visitor in the mountains. 

298. Gray-cheeked Thrush. Tardus a He fee. (Baird.) 
Transient visitor, rare in the middle section ; common in the 

mountains. 

299. Bicknell'S Thrush, Tiirdus aliciie hicknclli. (Ridgw. ) 
Transient visitor, rare in the middle section ; common in the 

mountains, 

300. Olive-back Thrush. Tardus ustulatus sivainsonii. (Cab.) 
Rare transient in the middle section ; summer visitor in the west. 

Breeds. Nest found May 20, 1886, by Cairns, on the Black Moun- 
tains. 

301. Hermit Thrush. Turdus cioua/asc/ikie pul/asii. (Cab.) 
Common winter visitor in all sections. 

302. American Robin. Merula ndgratoria. (Linn.) 

This species is an abundant transient and winter visitor in the 
east, a few remaining- all the summer and breeding; tolerably com- 
mon resident and migrant in the middle section; common resident 
in the mountains, rarer in winter. Breeds in all sections. 

303. Bluebird. Sialia sialls. (Linn.) 

Was a common resident, but last few years has not been so com- 
mon, generally distributed. Breeds in all sections. 



ORNITHOLOGY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



HYPOTHETICAL LIST. 



In this list are given species which ought to occur on the coast 
or within the borders of the state, as they occur both north and 
south, and in many instances, to the westward also. 

1. Parasitic J.^GER. Stercorarius -parasiticus. (Linn.) 

2. Long-tailed J.^ger. Stei-corarius longicaudas. (Veill.) 

3. Great Black-tailed Gull. Larus marinus. (Linn.) 

4. Gull-billed Tern. Gelochelidon nilotica. (Hasselq.) 

5. Caspian Tern. Sterna tschegrava. (Lepech.) 

6. Wilson's Petrel. Oceanitcs oceaniciis. (Kuhl.) 

7. BoOBY. Sula siila. (Linn.) 

8. Man-o'-War Bird. Fregata aquila. (Linn.) 

9. White Ibis. Guar a alba. (Linn.) 

10. Glossy Ibis. Plegadis autumnalis. (Hasselq.) 

11. Whooping Crane. Grtis amcricana. (Linn.) 

12. Sandhill Crane. Grus mexicana. (Mull.) 

13. Red Phalarope. Crymophilus fulicarius. (Linn.) 

14. Black-necked Stilt. Himantopus mexicanus. (Mull.) 

15. Stilt Sandpiper. Microfalama kimantopzis. (Bonap.) 

16. Purple Sandpiper. Tringa maritima. (Brunn.) 

17. Western Sandpiper. Ereunetcs occidentalis . (Lawr.) 

18. Hudsonian Godwit. Limosa hcemastica. (Linn.) 

19. Buff-breasted Sandpiper. Tringites subrtificoUis. (Veill.) 

20. Hudsonian Curlew. Niimenicus hudsonicus . (Lath.) 

21. Eskimo Curlew. Numcnius horealis. (Forst.) 

22. American Goshawk. Accipiter atricapillus. (Wils.) 



Index to Kaivlilies. 



PAGE. 

ATvAxid.5; — Larks 215 

Ai,CiD^ — Aiiks, Murres and Puffins 200 

Alcedinid.^j — Kingfishers , 212 

AnaTiD-E — DucUs, Geese and Swans 202 

Ampeeib^ — Waxwings 220 

AphriziB-^ — Surf Birds and Turnstones 209 

Ardiedi.E — Herons and Bitterns 205 

BUBONID^ — Horned Owls 211 

CaTharid.'E — American Vultures 210 

CAPRiMUtxciDiD.E — Goatsuckers 214 

CERTHIID.1;; — Creepers 225 

Charadriid.E — Plovers 208 

CicONiiD^ — Storks and Ibes. 205 

CoRViD.^ — Crows, Jays and Magpies 215 

CoivUMBiD^ — Pigeons .... 209 

Cucui<iDyE — Cuckoos, Anis, etc 212 

Faixonid^ — Vultures, Falcons, Hawks, Eagles, etc 210 

Fringilid/E — Finches, Sparrows, etc 216 

Haematropodid^ — Oyster-Catchers 209 

HiRUNDiNiD.E — Swallows.. , 219 

Icteric.^ — Blackbirds, Orioles, etc 215 

Lamiid^ — Shrikes 220 

IvARID.^ — Gulls and Terns 200 

Macropodid.E — Swifts 214 

MnioTietid^ — Wood Warblers 220 

MoNTACiLiD^: -Wagtails 224 

Parid.E — Nuthatches and Tits 225 

Pelicanid.E — Pelicans 202 

Phalaropid^ — Phalaropes 206 

Pfiaeacrocoracid.E — Cormorants 202 

Pha jia:mid.E — Pheasants, etc 209 

PiciDE^ — Woodpeckers 212 

PoDiciPiD/E — Grebes 200 

PROCEiyLARiD^ — Fulmars and Shearwaters 202 

PsiTTACiD^E — Parrots 212 

Rai^UD^ — Rails. Gallinules and Coots 206 

RECURVIROSTRID..S; — Avocets and Stilts 207 

ScOLOPACiD-E — Snipes, >Sandpipers, etc 207 

SuijD.E — Gannets 202 

vSvr^viiD.E — Warblers, Kinglets and Gnatcatchers 225 

Tanagrid^ — Tanagers 219 

Tetraonid-E — Grouse, Partridges, etc 209 

Troglodytid-E — Wrens, Thrashers, etc 224 

TuRDiD.E— Thrushes, Solitares, Stone Chats, Bluebirds, etc 225 

Trochiud^E — Hummingbirds 214 

TvRANiiDiE — Tyrant Flycatchers. 214 

RvNCHOPiD.E — Skimmers 201 



Uranatorid^ — Loons 200 

ViREONiD^ — Vireos 220 



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